|This block comprises a range of mental disorders grouped together on the basis of their having in common a demonstrable etiology in cerebral disease, brain injury, or other insult leading to cerebral dysfunction. The dysfunction may be primary, as in diseases, injuries, and insults that affect the brain directly and selectively; or secondary, as in systemic diseases and disorders that attack the brain only as one of the multiple organs or systems of the body that are involved.
Dementia (F00-F03) is a syndrome due to disease of the brain, usually of a chronic or progressive nature, in which there is disturbance of multiple higher cortical functions, including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Consciousness is not clouded. The impairments of cognitive function are commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation. This syndrome occurs in Alzheimer's disease, in cerebrovascular disease, and in other conditions primarily or secondarily affecting the brain.
|Use additional code, if desired, to identify the underlying disease.
Dementia in Alzheimer's disease
|Alzheimer's disease is a primary degenerative cerebral disease of unknown etiology with characteristic neuropathological and neurochemical features. The disorder is usually insidious in onset and develops slowly but steadily over a period of several years.
Dementia in Alzheimer's disease with early onset
|Dementia in Alzheimer's disease with onset before the age of 65, with a relatively rapid deteriorating course and with marked multiple disorders of the higher cortical functions.
|Alzheimer's disease, type 2
Presenile dementia, Alzheimer's type
Primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type, presenile onset
Dementia in Alzheimer's disease with late onset
|Dementia in Alzheimer's disease with onset after the age of 65, usually in the late 70s or thereafter, with a slow progression, and with memory impairment as the principal feature.
|Alzheimer's disease, type 1
Primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type, senile onset
Senile dementia, Alzheimer's type
Dementia in Alzheimer's disease, atypical or mixed type
|Atypical dementia, Alzheimer's type
Dementia in Alzheimer's disease, unspecified
|Vascular dementia is the result of infarction of the brain due to vascular disease, including hypertensive cerebrovascular disease. The infarcts are usually small but cumulative in their effect. Onset is usually in later life.
|Vascular dementia of acute onset
|Usually develops rapidly after a succession of strokes from cerebrovascular thrombosis, embolism or haemorrhage. In rare cases, a single large infarction may be the cause.
|Gradual in onset, following a number of transient ischaemic episodes which produce an accumulation of infarcts in the cerebral parenchyma.
|Predominantly cortical dementia
|Subcortical vascular dementia
|Includes cases with a history of hypertension and foci of ischaemic destruction in the deep white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is usually preserved and this contrasts with the clinical picture which may closely resemble that of dementia in Alzheimer's disease.
|Mixed cortical and subcortical vascular dementia
|Other vascular dementia
|Vascular dementia, unspecified
|Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere
|Cases of dementia due, or presumed to be due, to causes other than Alzheimer's disease or cerebrovascular disease. Onset may be at any time in life, though rarely in old age.
Dementia in Pick's disease
|A progressive dementia, commencing in middle age, characterized by early, slowly progressing changes of character and social deterioration, followed by impairment of intellect, memory, and language functions, with apathy, euphoria and, occasionally, extrapyramidal phenomena.
Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
|A progressive dementia with extensive neurological signs, due to specific neuropathological changes that are presumed to be caused by a transmissible agent. Onset is usually in middle or later life, but may be at any adult age. The course is subacute, leading to death within one to two years.
Dementia in Huntington's disease
|A dementia occurring as part of a widespread degeneration of the brain. The disorder is transmitted by a single autosomal dominant gene. Symptoms typically emerge in the third and fourth decade. Progression is slow, leading to death usually within 10 to 15 years.
|Dementia in Huntington's chorea
Dementia in Parkinson's disease
|A dementia developing in the course of established Parkinson's disease. No particular distinguishing clinical features have yet been demonstrated.
· paralysis agitans
Dementia in human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] disease
|Dementia developing in the course of HIV disease, in the absence of a concurrent illness or condition other than HIV infection that could explain the clinical features.
|Dementia in other specified diseases classified elsewhere
· cerebral lipidosis
· hepatolenticular degeneration
· hypothyroidism, acquired
· multiple sclerosis
· niacin deficiency [pellagra]
· polyarteritis nodosa
· systemic lupus erythematosus
· vitamin B 12 deficiency
· dementia NOS
· psychosis NOS
Primary degenerative dementia NOS
· depressed or paranoid type
· psychosis NOS
|senile dementia with delirium or acute confusional state
|Organic amnesic syndrome, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances
|A syndrome of prominent impairment of recent and remote memory while immediate recall is preserved, with reduced ability to learn new material and disorientation in time. Confabulation may be a marked feature, but perception and other cognitive functions, including the intellect, are usually intact. The prognosis depends on the course of the underlying lesion.
|Korsakov's psychosis or syndrome, nonalcoholic
· alcohol-induced or unspecified
· induced by other psychoactive substances
|Delirium, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances
|An etiologically nonspecific organic cerebral syndrome characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness and attention, perception, thinking, memory, psychomotor behaviour, emotion, and the sleep-wake schedule. The duration is variable and the degree of severity ranges from mild to very severe.
|acute or subacute:
· brain syndrome
· confusional state (nonalcoholic)
· infective psychosis
· organic reaction
· psycho-organic syndrome
|delirium tremens, alcohol-induced or unspecified
|Delirium not superimposed on dementia, so described
|Delirium superimposed on dementia
|Conditions meeting the above criteria but developing in the course of a dementia (F00-F03).
|Delirium of mixed origin
|Other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease
|Includes miscellaneous conditions causally related to brain disorder due to primary cerebral disease, to systemic disease affecting the brain secondarily, to exogenous toxic substances or hormones, to endocrine disorders, or to other somatic illnesses.
· dementia as classified in F00-F03
resulting from use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances
|A disorder of persistent or recurrent hallucinations, usually visual or auditory, that occur in clear consciousness and may or may not be recognized by the subject as such. Delusional elaboration of the hallucinations may occur, but delusions do not dominate the clinical picture; insight may be preserved.
|Organic hallucinatory state (nonalcoholic)
|Organic catatonic disorder
|A disorder of diminished (stupor) or increased (excitement) psychomotor activity associated with catatonic symptoms. The extremes of psychomotor disturbance may alternate.
|Organic delusional [schizophrenia-like] disorder
|A disorder in which persistent or recurrent delusions dominate the clinical picture. The delusions may be accompanied by hallucinations. Some features suggestive of schizophrenia, such as bizarre hallucinations or thought disorder, may be present.
|Paranoid and paranoid-hallucinatory organic states
Schizophrenia-like psychosis in epilepsy
· acute and transient psychotic
· persistent delusional
· psychotic drug-induced
|Organic mood [affective] disorders
|Disorders characterized by a change in mood or affect, usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity, depressive, hypomanic, manic or bipolar (see F30-F38), but arising as a consequence of an organic disorder.
|mood disorders, nonorganic or unspecified
|Organic anxiety disorder
|A disorder characterized by the essential descriptive features of a generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1), a panic disorder (F41.0), or a combination of both, but arising as a consequence of an organic disorder.
|anxiety disorders, nonorganic or unspecified
|Organic dissociative disorder
|A disorder characterized by a partial or complete loss of the normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of identity and immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements (see F44.-), but arising as a consequence of an organic disorder.
|dissociative [conversion] disorders, nonorganic or unspecified
|Organic emotionally labile [asthenic] disorder
|A disorder characterized by emotional incontinence or lability, fatigability, and a variety of unpleasant physical sensations (e.g. dizziness) and pains, but arising as a consequence of an organic disorder.
|somatoform disorders, nonorganic or unspecified
|Mild cognitive disorder
|A disorder characterized by impairment of memory, learning difficulties, and reduced ability to concentrate on a task for more than brief periods. There is often a marked feeling of mental fatigue when mental tasks are attempted, and new learning is found to be subjectively difficult even when objectively successful. None of these symptoms is so severe that a diagnosis of either dementia (F00-F03) or delirium (F05.-) can be made. This diagnosis should be made only in association with a specified physical disorder, and should not be made in the presence of any of the mental or behavioural disorders classified to F10-F99. The disorder may precede, accompany, or follow a wide variety of infections and physical disorders, both cerebral and systemic, but direct evidence of cerebral involvement is not necessarily present. It can be differentiated from postencephalitic syndrome (F07.1) and postconcussional syndrome (F07.2) by its different etiology, more restricted range of generally milder symptoms, and usually shorter duration.
|Other specified mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease
|Epileptic psychosis NOS
|Unspecified mental disorder due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease
· brain syndrome NOS
· mental disorder NOS
|Personality and behavioural disorders due to brain disease, damage and dysfunction
|Alteration of personality and behaviour can be a residual or concomitant disorder of brain disease, damage or dysfunction.
|Organic personality disorder
|A disorder characterized by a significant alteration of the habitual patterns of behaviour displayed by the subject premorbidly, involving the expression of emotions, needs and impulses. Impairment of cognitive and thought functions, and altered sexuality may also be part of the clinical picture.
· pseudopsychopathic personality
· pseudoretarded personality
· frontal lobe
· limbic epilepsy personality
|enduring personality change after:
· catastrophic experience
· psychiatric illness
specific personality disorder
|Residual nonspecific and variable behavioural change following recovery from either viral or bacterial encephalitis. The principal difference between this disorder and the organic personality disorders is that it is reversible.
|organic personality disorder
|A syndrome that occurs following head trauma (usually sufficiently severe to result in loss of consciousness) and includes a number of disparate symptoms such as headache, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, difficulty in concentration and performing mental tasks, impairment of memory, insomnia, and reduced tolerance to stress, emotional excitement, or alcohol.
|Postcontusional syndrome (encephalopathy)
Post-traumatic brain syndrome, nonpsychotic
|Other organic personality and behavioural disorders due to brain disease, damage and dysfunction
|Right hemispheric organic affective disorder
|Unspecified organic personality and behavioural disorder due to brain disease, damage and dysfunction
|Unspecified organic or symptomatic mental disorder
· organic NOS
· symptomatic NOS